Treatment of vitamin K deficiency in hemodialysis patients – A pilot study comparing menaquinone-7 tablets and a vitamin K rich diet

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Purpose: Vitamin K deficiency and hence a high level of plasma dephosphorylated undercarboxylated matrix Gla protein (dp-ucMGP) is frequent in patients on hemodialysis. This group is recommended to restrict their potassium intake which often leads to restriction of vitamin K rich foods. A menaquinone-7 (MK-7) supplement has been shown to decrease dp-ucMGP, but it has yet to be examined if a vitamin K rich diet could be equally effective.

Patients and Methods: A prospective randomized crossover intervention trial with two arms; 6 weeks of 360 μg MK-7 tablet/day and 6 weeks of a vitamin K rich diet with a 3-week washout period in between. Participants were 10 patients in hemodialysis and the primary outcome measures were changes in dp-ucMGP, total MGP (tMGP), and undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC). Furthermore, the level of potassium and phylloquinone in broccoli was determined after different durations of boiling. 

Results: During the MK-7 intervention the dp-ucMGP and ucOC decreased significantly compared to baseline (−0.42 [−0.93; −0.22] nmol/L (p=<0.01) and −1.85 [−2.91; −1.30] nmol/L (p<0.01)), while these were unchanged during the dietary intervention (0.03 [−0.64; 0.37] nmol/L (p=1.00) and 0.30 [−1.71; 1.41] nmol/L (p=0.77)). Between the two interventions there was a greater decrease in ucOC (p=0.02) during the MK-7 compared to the dietary period. No significant changes in the total MGP levels were found in any of the periods. The retention of potassium following boiling for 2 minutes and 8 minutes was 76% and 49%, respectively, while for phylloquinone the retention was 92%, and independent of duration of boiling. 

Conclusion: A daily MK-7 supplement for 6 weeks lowered dp-ucMGP and ucOC significantly, while a vitamin K rich diet was not able to induce any significant effect. Boiled broccoli maintains a reasonable content of phylloquinone while potassium is extracted and is a reasonable source of phylloquinone for patients on hemodialysis.

TidsskriftInternational Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
Sider (fra-til)267-276
Antal sider10
StatusUdgivet - 2022

Bibliografisk note

CURIS 2022 NEXS 259

Funding Information:
This research was funded by The A.P. Møller Foundation for the Advancement of Medical Science (grant no. 17-L-0237) as well as a Student Grant from the Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen (grant no. JRA-17-98). Orkla Care© provided the tablets, with no restrictions on the study design, execution, data analyses, or presentation.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 Lentz et al.

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