Sodium intake during pregnancy, but not other diet recommendations aimed at preventing cardiovascular disease, is positively related to risk of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningfagfællebedømt

Background: The role of diet on hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDPs), including preeclampsia and gestational hypertension (GHTN), remains unclear.

Objectives: We evaluated whether adherence during pregnancy to dietary recommendations that reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the general population is related to the risk of HDPs.

Methods: We followed 66,651 singleton pregnancies from 62,774 women participating in the Danish National Birth Cohort. Diet was assessed during week of gestation 25 with an FFQ from which we created 2 dietary pattern scores: 1) AHA, based on the diet recommendations from the AHA 2020 Strategic Impact Goals; and 2) the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet. Cases of HDPs were identified through linkage with the Danish National Patient Registry. RRs and 95% CIs of HDPs were estimated by increasing quintiles of adherence to the AHA and DASH scores using log-Poisson regression models with generalized estimating equations-to account for repeated pregnancies per woman-while adjusting for potential confounders.

Results: We identified 1809 cases of HDPs: n = 1310 preeclampsia (n = 300 severe preeclampsia) and n = 499 cases of GHTN. Greater adherence to AHA or DASH scores was not related to the risk of HDPs. However, when each component of the scores was separately evaluated, there were positive linear relations of sodium intake with HDPs (P-linearity < 0.01). Women with the highest sodium intake [median 3.70 g/d (range: 3.52, 7.52 g/d)] had 54% (95% CI:16%, 104%) higher risk of GHTN and 20% (95% CI:1%, 42%) higher risk of preeclampsia than women with the lowest intake [median 2.60 g/d (range: 0.83, 2.79 g/d)]. In addition, intake of whole grains was positively related to the risk of GHTN but not to preeclampsia (P-heterogeneity = 0.002).

Conclusion: Sodium intake during pregnancy, but no other diet recommendations to prevent CVD among nonpregnant adults, is positively related to the occurrence of HDPs among pregnant Danish women.
TidsskriftJournal of Nutrition
Udgave nummer1
Sider (fra-til)159-166
Antal sider8
StatusUdgivet - 2020
Eksternt udgivetJa

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