Growth factor-dependent and -independent activation of mTORC2

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The target of rapamycin complex 2 (TORC2) was discovered in 2002 in budding yeast. Its mammalian counterpart, mTORC2, was first described in 2004. Soon thereafter it was demonstrated that mTORC2 directly phosphorylates Akt on Ser473, ending a long search for the elusive 'second' insulin-responsive Akt kinase. In this review we discuss key evidence pertaining to the subcellular localization of mTORC2, highlighting a spatial heterogeneity that relates to mTORC2 activation. We summarize current models for how growth factors (GFs), such as insulin, trigger mTORC2 activation, and we provide a comprehensive discussion focusing on a new exciting frontier, the molecular mechanisms underpinning GF-independent activation of mTORC2.

Original languageEnglish
JournalTrends in Endocrinology and Metabolism
Issue number1
Pages (from-to)13-24
Number of pages12
Publication statusPublished - 2020

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