Is protein the forgotten ingredient: Effects of higher compared to lower protein diets on cardiometabolic risk factors. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftReviewForskningfagfællebedømt

  • Yakima D Vogtschmidt
  • Raben, Anne
  • Faber, Ilona
  • Claudia de Wilde
  • Julie A Lovegrove
  • D Ian Givens
  • Andreas F H Pfeiffer
  • Sabita S Soedamah-Muthu

Background and aims: Higher protein (HP) diets may lead to lower cardiometabolic risk, compared to lower protein (LP) diets. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to investigate the effects of HP versus LP diets on cardiometabolic risk factors in adults, using the totality of the current evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCTs).

Methods: Systematic searches were conducted in electronic databases, up to November 2020. Random effects meta-analyses were conducted to pool the standardised mean differences (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). The main outcomes were weight loss, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, fat mass, systolic and diastolic BP, total cholesterol, HDL-and LDL-cholesterol, triacylglycerol, fasting glucose and insulin, and glycated haemoglobin.

Results: Fifty-seven articles reporting on 54 RCTs were included, involving 4344 participants (65% female, mean age: 46 (SD 10) years, mean BMI: 33 (SD 3) kg/m2), with a mean study duration of 18 weeks (range: 4 to 156 weeks). Compared to LP diets (range protein (E%):10-23%), HP diets (range protein (E%): 20-45%) led to more weight loss (SMD -0.13, 95% CI: -0.23, -0.03), greater reductions in fat mass (SMD -0.14, 95% CI: -0.24, -0.04), systolic BP (SMD -0.12, 95% CI: -0.21, -0.02), total cholesterol (SMD -0.11, 95% CI: -0.19, -0.02), triacylglycerol (SMD -0.22, 95% CI: -0.30, -0.14) and insulin (SMD -0.12, 95% CI: -0.22, -0.03). No significant differences were observed for the other outcomes.

Conclusions: Higher protein diets showed small, but favourable effects on weight loss, fat mass loss, systolic blood pressure, some lipid outcomes and insulin, compared to lower protein diets.

Sider (fra-til)124-135
Antal sider12
StatusUdgivet - 2021

Bibliografisk note

CURIS 2021 NEXS 210

Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

ID: 272166244