Can a higher protein/low glycemic index vs. a conventional diet attenuate changes in appetite and gut hormones following weight loss? A 3-year PREVIEW sub-study
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- Buso et al_Frontiers in Nutrition_2021_Vol 8_e640538
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Background: Previous research showed that weight-reducing diets increase appetite sensations and/or circulating ghrelin concentrations for up to 36 months, with transient or enduring perturbations in circulating concentrations of the satiety hormone peptide YY.
Objective: This study assessed whether a diet that is higher in protein and low in glycemic index (GI) may attenuate these changes.
Methods: 136 adults with pre-diabetes and a body mass index of ≥25 kg/m2 underwent a 2-month weight-reducing total meal replacement diet. Participants who lost ≥8% body weight were randomized to one of two 34-month weight-maintenance diets: a higher-protein and moderate-carbohydrate (CHO) diet with low GI, or a moderate-protein and higher-CHO diet with moderate GI. Both arms involved recommendations to increase physical activity. Fasting plasma concentrations of total ghrelin and total peptide YY, and appetite sensations, were measured at 0 months (pre-weight loss), at 2 months (immediately post-weight loss), and at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months.
Results: There was a decrease in plasma peptide YY concentrations and an increase in ghrelin after the 2-month weight-reducing diet, and these values approached pre-weight-loss values by 6 and 24 months, respectively (P = 0.32 and P = 0.08, respectively, vs. 0 months). However, there were no differences between the two weight-maintenance diets. Subjective appetite sensations were not affected by the weight-reducing diet nor the weight-maintenance diets. While participants regained an average of ~50% of the weight they had lost by 36 months, the changes in ghrelin and peptide YY during the weight-reducing phase did not correlate with weight regain.
Conclusion: A higher-protein, low-GI diet for weight maintenance does not attenuate changes in ghrelin or peptide YY compared with a moderate-protein, moderate-GI diet.
Clinical Trial Registry: ClinicalTrials.gov registry ID NCT01777893 (PREVIEW) and ID NCT02030249 (Sub-study).
|Tidsskrift||Frontiers in Nutrition|
|Status||Udgivet - 2021|
CURIS 2021 NEXS 129