A carbohydrate-reduced high-protein diet improves HbA1c and liver fat content in weight stable participants with type 2 diabetes: a randomised controlled trial

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Standard

A carbohydrate-reduced high-protein diet improves HbA1c and liver fat content in weight stable participants with type 2 diabetes : a randomised controlled trial. / Skytte, Mads Gustav Juul; Samkani, Amirsalar; Petersen, Amy D; Thomsen, Mads Norvin; Astrup, Arne; Chabanova, Elizaveta; Frystyk, Jan; Holst, Jens Juul; Thomsen, Henrik S; Madsbad, Sten; Larsen, Thomas Meinert; Haugaard, Steen Bendix; Krarup, Thure.

I: Diabetologia, 23.07.2019.

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningfagfællebedømt

Harvard

Skytte, MGJ, Samkani, A, Petersen, AD, Thomsen, MN, Astrup, A, Chabanova, E, Frystyk, J, Holst, JJ, Thomsen, HS, Madsbad, S, Larsen, TM, Haugaard, SB & Krarup, T 2019, 'A carbohydrate-reduced high-protein diet improves HbA1c and liver fat content in weight stable participants with type 2 diabetes: a randomised controlled trial', Diabetologia. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00125-019-4956-4

APA

Skytte, M. G. J., Samkani, A., Petersen, A. D., Thomsen, M. N., Astrup, A., Chabanova, E., ... Krarup, T. (2019). A carbohydrate-reduced high-protein diet improves HbA1c and liver fat content in weight stable participants with type 2 diabetes: a randomised controlled trial. Diabetologia. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00125-019-4956-4

Vancouver

Skytte MGJ, Samkani A, Petersen AD, Thomsen MN, Astrup A, Chabanova E o.a. A carbohydrate-reduced high-protein diet improves HbA1c and liver fat content in weight stable participants with type 2 diabetes: a randomised controlled trial. Diabetologia. 2019 jul 23. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00125-019-4956-4

Author

Skytte, Mads Gustav Juul ; Samkani, Amirsalar ; Petersen, Amy D ; Thomsen, Mads Norvin ; Astrup, Arne ; Chabanova, Elizaveta ; Frystyk, Jan ; Holst, Jens Juul ; Thomsen, Henrik S ; Madsbad, Sten ; Larsen, Thomas Meinert ; Haugaard, Steen Bendix ; Krarup, Thure. / A carbohydrate-reduced high-protein diet improves HbA1c and liver fat content in weight stable participants with type 2 diabetes : a randomised controlled trial. I: Diabetologia. 2019.

Bibtex

@article{a46703acec6e4c2ba2884da1e196850f,
title = "A carbohydrate-reduced high-protein diet improves HbA1c and liver fat content in weight stable participants with type 2 diabetes: a randomised controlled trial",
abstract = "Aims/Hypothesis: Dietary recommendations for treating type 2 diabetes are unclear but a trend towards recommending a diet reduced in carbohydrate content is acknowledged. We compared a carbohydrate-reduced high-protein (CRHP) diet with an iso-energetic conventional diabetes (CD) diet to elucidate the effects on glycaemic control and selected cardiovascular risk markers during 6 weeks of full food provision of each diet.Methods: The primary outcome of the study was change in HbA1c. Secondary outcomes reported in the present paper include glycaemic variables, ectopic fat content and 24 h blood pressure. Eligibility criteria were: men and women with type 2 diabetes, HbA1c 48-97 mmol/mol (6.5-11{\%}), age >18 years, haemoglobin >6/>7 mmol/l (women/men) and eGFR >30 ml min-1 (1.73 m)-2. Participants were randomised by drawing blinded ballots to 6 + 6 weeks of an iso-energetic CRHP vs CD diet in an open label, crossover design aiming at body weight stability. The CRHP/CD diets contained carbohydrate 30/50 energy per cent (E{\%}), protein 30/17E{\%} and fat 40/33E{\%}, respectively. Participants underwent a meal test at the end of each diet period and glycaemic variables, lipid profiles, 24 h blood pressure and ectopic fat including liver and pancreatic fat content were assessed at baseline and at the end of each diet period. Data were collected at Copenhagen University Hospital, Bispebjerg and Copenhagen University Hospital, Herlev.Results: Twenty-eight participants completed the study. Fourteen participants carried out 6 weeks of the CRHP intervention followed by 6 weeks of the CD intervention, and 14 participants received the dietary interventions in the reverse order. Compared with a CD diet, a CRHP diet reduced the primary outcome of HbA1c (mean ± SEM: -6.2 ± 0.8 mmol/mol (-0.6 ± 0.1{\%}) vs -0.75 ± 1.0 mmol/mol (-0.1 ± 0.1{\%}); p < 0.001). Nine (out of 37) pre-specified secondary outcomes are reported in the present paper, of which five were significantly different between the diets, (p < 0.05); compared with a CD diet, a CRHP diet reduced the secondary outcomes (mean ± SEM or medians [interquartile range]) of fasting plasma glucose (-0.71 ± 0.20 mmol/l vs 0.03 ± 0.23 mmol/l; p < 0.05), postprandial plasma glucose AUC (9.58 ± 0.29 mmol/l × 240 min vs 11.89 ± 0.43 mmol/l × 240 min; p < 0.001) and net AUC (1.25 ± 0.20 mmol/l × 240 min vs 3.10 ± 0.25 mmol/l × 240 min; p < 0.001), hepatic fat content (-2.4{\%} [-7.8{\%} to -1.0{\%}] vs 0.2{\%} [-2.3{\%} to 0.9{\%}]; p < 0.01) and pancreatic fat content (-1.7{\%} [-3.5{\%} to 0.6{\%}] vs 0.5{\%} [-1.0{\%} to 2.0{\%}]; p < 0.05). Changes in other secondary outcomes, i.e. 24 h blood pressure and muscle-, visceral- or subcutaneous adipose tissue, did not differ between diets.Conclusions/Interpretation: A moderate macronutrient shift by substituting carbohydrates with protein and fat for 6 weeks reduced HbA1c and hepatic fat content in weight stable individuals with type 2 diabetes.Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02764021.",
keywords = "The Faculty of Science, Carbohydrate restriction, Cardiovascular disease, Dietary intervention, Ectopic fat deposition, Glycaemic control, Metabolism, Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, Nutritional therapy, Type 2 diabetes mellitus, Weight stability",
author = "Skytte, {Mads Gustav Juul} and Amirsalar Samkani and Petersen, {Amy D} and Thomsen, {Mads Norvin} and Arne Astrup and Elizaveta Chabanova and Jan Frystyk and Holst, {Jens Juul} and Thomsen, {Henrik S} and Sten Madsbad and Larsen, {Thomas Meinert} and Haugaard, {Steen Bendix} and Thure Krarup",
note = "CURIS 2019 NEXS 251",
year = "2019",
month = "7",
day = "23",
doi = "10.1007/s00125-019-4956-4",
language = "English",
journal = "Diabetologia",
issn = "0012-186X",
publisher = "Springer",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - A carbohydrate-reduced high-protein diet improves HbA1c and liver fat content in weight stable participants with type 2 diabetes

T2 - a randomised controlled trial

AU - Skytte, Mads Gustav Juul

AU - Samkani, Amirsalar

AU - Petersen, Amy D

AU - Thomsen, Mads Norvin

AU - Astrup, Arne

AU - Chabanova, Elizaveta

AU - Frystyk, Jan

AU - Holst, Jens Juul

AU - Thomsen, Henrik S

AU - Madsbad, Sten

AU - Larsen, Thomas Meinert

AU - Haugaard, Steen Bendix

AU - Krarup, Thure

N1 - CURIS 2019 NEXS 251

PY - 2019/7/23

Y1 - 2019/7/23

N2 - Aims/Hypothesis: Dietary recommendations for treating type 2 diabetes are unclear but a trend towards recommending a diet reduced in carbohydrate content is acknowledged. We compared a carbohydrate-reduced high-protein (CRHP) diet with an iso-energetic conventional diabetes (CD) diet to elucidate the effects on glycaemic control and selected cardiovascular risk markers during 6 weeks of full food provision of each diet.Methods: The primary outcome of the study was change in HbA1c. Secondary outcomes reported in the present paper include glycaemic variables, ectopic fat content and 24 h blood pressure. Eligibility criteria were: men and women with type 2 diabetes, HbA1c 48-97 mmol/mol (6.5-11%), age >18 years, haemoglobin >6/>7 mmol/l (women/men) and eGFR >30 ml min-1 (1.73 m)-2. Participants were randomised by drawing blinded ballots to 6 + 6 weeks of an iso-energetic CRHP vs CD diet in an open label, crossover design aiming at body weight stability. The CRHP/CD diets contained carbohydrate 30/50 energy per cent (E%), protein 30/17E% and fat 40/33E%, respectively. Participants underwent a meal test at the end of each diet period and glycaemic variables, lipid profiles, 24 h blood pressure and ectopic fat including liver and pancreatic fat content were assessed at baseline and at the end of each diet period. Data were collected at Copenhagen University Hospital, Bispebjerg and Copenhagen University Hospital, Herlev.Results: Twenty-eight participants completed the study. Fourteen participants carried out 6 weeks of the CRHP intervention followed by 6 weeks of the CD intervention, and 14 participants received the dietary interventions in the reverse order. Compared with a CD diet, a CRHP diet reduced the primary outcome of HbA1c (mean ± SEM: -6.2 ± 0.8 mmol/mol (-0.6 ± 0.1%) vs -0.75 ± 1.0 mmol/mol (-0.1 ± 0.1%); p < 0.001). Nine (out of 37) pre-specified secondary outcomes are reported in the present paper, of which five were significantly different between the diets, (p < 0.05); compared with a CD diet, a CRHP diet reduced the secondary outcomes (mean ± SEM or medians [interquartile range]) of fasting plasma glucose (-0.71 ± 0.20 mmol/l vs 0.03 ± 0.23 mmol/l; p < 0.05), postprandial plasma glucose AUC (9.58 ± 0.29 mmol/l × 240 min vs 11.89 ± 0.43 mmol/l × 240 min; p < 0.001) and net AUC (1.25 ± 0.20 mmol/l × 240 min vs 3.10 ± 0.25 mmol/l × 240 min; p < 0.001), hepatic fat content (-2.4% [-7.8% to -1.0%] vs 0.2% [-2.3% to 0.9%]; p < 0.01) and pancreatic fat content (-1.7% [-3.5% to 0.6%] vs 0.5% [-1.0% to 2.0%]; p < 0.05). Changes in other secondary outcomes, i.e. 24 h blood pressure and muscle-, visceral- or subcutaneous adipose tissue, did not differ between diets.Conclusions/Interpretation: A moderate macronutrient shift by substituting carbohydrates with protein and fat for 6 weeks reduced HbA1c and hepatic fat content in weight stable individuals with type 2 diabetes.Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02764021.

AB - Aims/Hypothesis: Dietary recommendations for treating type 2 diabetes are unclear but a trend towards recommending a diet reduced in carbohydrate content is acknowledged. We compared a carbohydrate-reduced high-protein (CRHP) diet with an iso-energetic conventional diabetes (CD) diet to elucidate the effects on glycaemic control and selected cardiovascular risk markers during 6 weeks of full food provision of each diet.Methods: The primary outcome of the study was change in HbA1c. Secondary outcomes reported in the present paper include glycaemic variables, ectopic fat content and 24 h blood pressure. Eligibility criteria were: men and women with type 2 diabetes, HbA1c 48-97 mmol/mol (6.5-11%), age >18 years, haemoglobin >6/>7 mmol/l (women/men) and eGFR >30 ml min-1 (1.73 m)-2. Participants were randomised by drawing blinded ballots to 6 + 6 weeks of an iso-energetic CRHP vs CD diet in an open label, crossover design aiming at body weight stability. The CRHP/CD diets contained carbohydrate 30/50 energy per cent (E%), protein 30/17E% and fat 40/33E%, respectively. Participants underwent a meal test at the end of each diet period and glycaemic variables, lipid profiles, 24 h blood pressure and ectopic fat including liver and pancreatic fat content were assessed at baseline and at the end of each diet period. Data were collected at Copenhagen University Hospital, Bispebjerg and Copenhagen University Hospital, Herlev.Results: Twenty-eight participants completed the study. Fourteen participants carried out 6 weeks of the CRHP intervention followed by 6 weeks of the CD intervention, and 14 participants received the dietary interventions in the reverse order. Compared with a CD diet, a CRHP diet reduced the primary outcome of HbA1c (mean ± SEM: -6.2 ± 0.8 mmol/mol (-0.6 ± 0.1%) vs -0.75 ± 1.0 mmol/mol (-0.1 ± 0.1%); p < 0.001). Nine (out of 37) pre-specified secondary outcomes are reported in the present paper, of which five were significantly different between the diets, (p < 0.05); compared with a CD diet, a CRHP diet reduced the secondary outcomes (mean ± SEM or medians [interquartile range]) of fasting plasma glucose (-0.71 ± 0.20 mmol/l vs 0.03 ± 0.23 mmol/l; p < 0.05), postprandial plasma glucose AUC (9.58 ± 0.29 mmol/l × 240 min vs 11.89 ± 0.43 mmol/l × 240 min; p < 0.001) and net AUC (1.25 ± 0.20 mmol/l × 240 min vs 3.10 ± 0.25 mmol/l × 240 min; p < 0.001), hepatic fat content (-2.4% [-7.8% to -1.0%] vs 0.2% [-2.3% to 0.9%]; p < 0.01) and pancreatic fat content (-1.7% [-3.5% to 0.6%] vs 0.5% [-1.0% to 2.0%]; p < 0.05). Changes in other secondary outcomes, i.e. 24 h blood pressure and muscle-, visceral- or subcutaneous adipose tissue, did not differ between diets.Conclusions/Interpretation: A moderate macronutrient shift by substituting carbohydrates with protein and fat for 6 weeks reduced HbA1c and hepatic fat content in weight stable individuals with type 2 diabetes.Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02764021.

KW - The Faculty of Science

KW - Carbohydrate restriction

KW - Cardiovascular disease

KW - Dietary intervention

KW - Ectopic fat deposition

KW - Glycaemic control

KW - Metabolism

KW - Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

KW - Nutritional therapy

KW - Type 2 diabetes mellitus

KW - Weight stability

U2 - 10.1007/s00125-019-4956-4

DO - 10.1007/s00125-019-4956-4

M3 - Journal article

JO - Diabetologia

JF - Diabetologia

SN - 0012-186X

ER -

ID: 225176513