Influence of hemoglobinopathies and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency on diagnosis of diabetes by HbA1c among Tanzanian adults with and without HIV: A cross-sectional study

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Introduction: Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is recommended for diagnosing and monitoring diabetes. However, in people with sickle cell disease (SCD), sickle cell trait (SCT), α-thalassemia or glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, HbA1c may underestimate the prevalence of diabetes. There are no data on the extent of this problem in sub-Saharan Africa despite having high prevalence of these red blood cell disorders.

Methods: Blood samples from 431 adults in northwestern Tanzania, randomly selected from the prospective cohort study, Chronic Infections, Comorbidities and Diabetes in Africa (CICADA), were analysed for SCT/SCD, α-thalassemia and G6PD deficiency and tested for associations with the combined prevalence of prediabetes and diabetes (PD/DM) by HbA1c, using the HemoCue 501 HbA1c instrument, and by 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT).

Results: The mean age of the participants was 40.5 (SD11.6) years; 61% were females and 71% were HIV-infected. Among 431 participants, 110 (25.5%) had SCT and none had SCD. Heterozygous α-thalassemia (heterozygous α+ AT) was present in 186 (43%) of the participants, while 52 participants (12%) had homozygous α-thalassemia (homozygous α+ AT). Furthermore, 40 (9.3%) participants, all females, had heterozygous G6PD deficiency while 24 (5.6%) males and 4 (0.9%) females had hemizygous and homozygous G6PD deficiency, respectively. In adjusted analysis, participants with SCT were 85% less likely to be diagnosed with PD/DM by HbA1c compared to those without SCT (OR = 0.15, 95% CI: 0.08, 0.26, P < 0.001). When using OGTT, in adjusted analysis, SCT was not associated with diagnosis of PD/DM while participants with homozygous α+ AT and hemizygous G6PD deficiency were more likely to be diagnosed with PD/DM.

Conclusions: HbA1c underestimates the prevalence of PD/DM among Tanzanian adults with SCT. Further research using other HbA1c instruments is needed to optimize HbA1c use among populations with high prevalence of hemoglobinopathies or G6PD deficiency.

TidsskriftP L o S One
Udgave nummer12
Antal sider14
StatusUdgivet - 2020

Bibliografisk note

CURIS 2020 NEXS 378

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