Gymnastics between protestantism and libertinism from 1880 to 1940: A comparative analysis of two internationally renowned Danish gymnastics educators

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

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Gymnastics between protestantism and libertinism from 1880 to 1940: A comparative analysis of two internationally renowned Danish gymnastics educators. / Bonde, Hans.

In: Nordic Journal of Educational History, Vol. 4, No. 2, 2017, p. 85-111.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Harvard

Bonde, H 2017, 'Gymnastics between protestantism and libertinism from 1880 to 1940: A comparative analysis of two internationally renowned Danish gymnastics educators', Nordic Journal of Educational History, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 85-111.

APA

Bonde, H. (2017). Gymnastics between protestantism and libertinism from 1880 to 1940: A comparative analysis of two internationally renowned Danish gymnastics educators. Nordic Journal of Educational History, 4(2), 85-111.

Vancouver

Bonde H. Gymnastics between protestantism and libertinism from 1880 to 1940: A comparative analysis of two internationally renowned Danish gymnastics educators. Nordic Journal of Educational History. 2017;4(2):85-111.

Author

Bonde, Hans. / Gymnastics between protestantism and libertinism from 1880 to 1940: A comparative analysis of two internationally renowned Danish gymnastics educators. In: Nordic Journal of Educational History. 2017 ; Vol. 4, No. 2. pp. 85-111.

Bibtex

@article{ff3a569ee5414c038254ef290cde9775,
title = "Gymnastics between protestantism and libertinism from 1880 to 1940: A comparative analysis of two internationally renowned Danish gymnastics educators",
abstract = "The purpose of this article is to analyze and compare two internationally renowned Danish Gymnastics teachers, J{\o}rgen Peter Muller and Niels Bukh. Whereas Muller’s home gymnastics had a cosmopolitan agenda that appealed to everyone regardless of ethnic origin, including many Jews, Bukh’s gymnastics increasingly became embedded in a right-wing nationalist frame of reference. Muller created an individual system of home gymnastics with a focus on health by means of exercises and the cleansing of the body that included a cold shower. In contrast, Bukh’s system was a collective form of gymnastics that emphasised the beauty of the young body. Common to both of them, however, was propagation of sexual liberation, which in Muller’s case focused on the naked heterosexual body’s manifestations in the sunlight and the fresh air. By contrast, Bukh was homosexual and through his aesthetic gaze he encouraged well-trained and sweaty young men to show their muscular upper body in touch-tight choreographies wearing only boxer shorts. It is the main thesis of the article that the contribution of sport to sexual liberation from late Victorianism’s firm grip is far greater than hitherto assumed.",
keywords = "Faculty of Science, Gymnastics, Sports, Hygiene, Aesthetics, Sexuality, J P Muller, Niels Bukh",
author = "Hans Bonde",
note = "CURIS 2017 NEXS 349",
year = "2017",
language = "English",
volume = "4",
pages = "85--111",
journal = "Nordic Journal of Educational History",
issn = "2001-7766",
publisher = "Ume{\aa} University",
number = "2",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Gymnastics between protestantism and libertinism from 1880 to 1940: A comparative analysis of two internationally renowned Danish gymnastics educators

AU - Bonde, Hans

N1 - CURIS 2017 NEXS 349

PY - 2017

Y1 - 2017

N2 - The purpose of this article is to analyze and compare two internationally renowned Danish Gymnastics teachers, Jørgen Peter Muller and Niels Bukh. Whereas Muller’s home gymnastics had a cosmopolitan agenda that appealed to everyone regardless of ethnic origin, including many Jews, Bukh’s gymnastics increasingly became embedded in a right-wing nationalist frame of reference. Muller created an individual system of home gymnastics with a focus on health by means of exercises and the cleansing of the body that included a cold shower. In contrast, Bukh’s system was a collective form of gymnastics that emphasised the beauty of the young body. Common to both of them, however, was propagation of sexual liberation, which in Muller’s case focused on the naked heterosexual body’s manifestations in the sunlight and the fresh air. By contrast, Bukh was homosexual and through his aesthetic gaze he encouraged well-trained and sweaty young men to show their muscular upper body in touch-tight choreographies wearing only boxer shorts. It is the main thesis of the article that the contribution of sport to sexual liberation from late Victorianism’s firm grip is far greater than hitherto assumed.

AB - The purpose of this article is to analyze and compare two internationally renowned Danish Gymnastics teachers, Jørgen Peter Muller and Niels Bukh. Whereas Muller’s home gymnastics had a cosmopolitan agenda that appealed to everyone regardless of ethnic origin, including many Jews, Bukh’s gymnastics increasingly became embedded in a right-wing nationalist frame of reference. Muller created an individual system of home gymnastics with a focus on health by means of exercises and the cleansing of the body that included a cold shower. In contrast, Bukh’s system was a collective form of gymnastics that emphasised the beauty of the young body. Common to both of them, however, was propagation of sexual liberation, which in Muller’s case focused on the naked heterosexual body’s manifestations in the sunlight and the fresh air. By contrast, Bukh was homosexual and through his aesthetic gaze he encouraged well-trained and sweaty young men to show their muscular upper body in touch-tight choreographies wearing only boxer shorts. It is the main thesis of the article that the contribution of sport to sexual liberation from late Victorianism’s firm grip is far greater than hitherto assumed.

KW - Faculty of Science

KW - Gymnastics

KW - Sports

KW - Hygiene

KW - Aesthetics

KW - Sexuality

KW - J P Muller

KW - Niels Bukh

M3 - Journal article

VL - 4

SP - 85

EP - 111

JO - Nordic Journal of Educational History

JF - Nordic Journal of Educational History

SN - 2001-7766

IS - 2

ER -

ID: 186711034