The carbohydrate-insulin model: a physiological perspective on the obesity pandemic

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Standard

The carbohydrate-insulin model: a physiological perspective on the obesity pandemic. / Ludwig, David S; Aronne, Louis J; Astrup, Arne; de Cabo, Rafael; Cantley, Lewis C; Friedman, Mark I; Heymsfield, Steven B; Johnson, James D; King, Janet C; Krauss, Ronald M; Lieberman, Daniel E; Taubes, Gary; Volek, Jeff S; Westman, Eric C; Willett, Walter C; Yancy, William S; Ebbeling, Cara B.

In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 13.09.2021.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Harvard

Ludwig, DS, Aronne, LJ, Astrup, A, de Cabo, R, Cantley, LC, Friedman, MI, Heymsfield, SB, Johnson, JD, King, JC, Krauss, RM, Lieberman, DE, Taubes, G, Volek, JS, Westman, EC, Willett, WC, Yancy, WS & Ebbeling, CB 2021, 'The carbohydrate-insulin model: a physiological perspective on the obesity pandemic', American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqab270

APA

Ludwig, D. S., Aronne, L. J., Astrup, A., de Cabo, R., Cantley, L. C., Friedman, M. I., Heymsfield, S. B., Johnson, J. D., King, J. C., Krauss, R. M., Lieberman, D. E., Taubes, G., Volek, J. S., Westman, E. C., Willett, W. C., Yancy, W. S., & Ebbeling, C. B. (2021). The carbohydrate-insulin model: a physiological perspective on the obesity pandemic. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqab270

Vancouver

Ludwig DS, Aronne LJ, Astrup A, de Cabo R, Cantley LC, Friedman MI et al. The carbohydrate-insulin model: a physiological perspective on the obesity pandemic. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2021 Sep 13. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqab270

Author

Ludwig, David S ; Aronne, Louis J ; Astrup, Arne ; de Cabo, Rafael ; Cantley, Lewis C ; Friedman, Mark I ; Heymsfield, Steven B ; Johnson, James D ; King, Janet C ; Krauss, Ronald M ; Lieberman, Daniel E ; Taubes, Gary ; Volek, Jeff S ; Westman, Eric C ; Willett, Walter C ; Yancy, William S ; Ebbeling, Cara B. / The carbohydrate-insulin model: a physiological perspective on the obesity pandemic. In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2021.

Bibtex

@article{b89dba9c771d4db8ac997c36535f1394,
title = "The carbohydrate-insulin model: a physiological perspective on the obesity pandemic",
abstract = "According to a commonly held view, the obesity pandemic is caused by overconsumption of modern, highly palatable, energy-dense processed foods, exacerbated by a sedentary lifestyle. However, obesity rates remain at historic highs, despite a persistent focus on eating less and moving more, as guided by the energy balance model (EBM). This public health failure may arise from a fundamental limitation of the EBM itself. Conceptualizing obesity as a disorder of energy balance restates a principle of physics without considering the biological mechanisms that promote weight gain. An alternative paradigm, the carbohydrate-insulin model (CIM), proposes a reversal of causal direction. According to the CIM, increasing fat deposition in the body-resulting from the hormonal responses to a high-glycemic-load diet-drives positive energy balance. The CIM provides a conceptual framework with testable hypotheses for how various modifiable factors influence energy balance and fat storage. Rigorous research is needed to compare the validity of these 2 models, which have substantially different implications for obesity management, and to generate new models that best encompass the evidence.",
keywords = "Faculty of Science, Obesity, Weight loss, Dietary carbohydrate, Energy balance, Macronutrients, Endocrinology, Insulin, Glucagon, Incretins, Scholarly discourse",
author = "Ludwig, {David S} and Aronne, {Louis J} and Arne Astrup and {de Cabo}, Rafael and Cantley, {Lewis C} and Friedman, {Mark I} and Heymsfield, {Steven B} and Johnson, {James D} and King, {Janet C} and Krauss, {Ronald M} and Lieberman, {Daniel E} and Gary Taubes and Volek, {Jeff S} and Westman, {Eric C} and Willett, {Walter C} and Yancy, {William S} and Ebbeling, {Cara B}",
note = "{\textcopyright} The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Society for Nutrition.",
year = "2021",
month = sep,
day = "13",
doi = "10.1093/ajcn/nqab270",
language = "English",
journal = "American Journal of Clinical Nutrition",
issn = "0002-9165",
publisher = "American Society for Nutrition",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - The carbohydrate-insulin model: a physiological perspective on the obesity pandemic

AU - Ludwig, David S

AU - Aronne, Louis J

AU - Astrup, Arne

AU - de Cabo, Rafael

AU - Cantley, Lewis C

AU - Friedman, Mark I

AU - Heymsfield, Steven B

AU - Johnson, James D

AU - King, Janet C

AU - Krauss, Ronald M

AU - Lieberman, Daniel E

AU - Taubes, Gary

AU - Volek, Jeff S

AU - Westman, Eric C

AU - Willett, Walter C

AU - Yancy, William S

AU - Ebbeling, Cara B

N1 - © The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Society for Nutrition.

PY - 2021/9/13

Y1 - 2021/9/13

N2 - According to a commonly held view, the obesity pandemic is caused by overconsumption of modern, highly palatable, energy-dense processed foods, exacerbated by a sedentary lifestyle. However, obesity rates remain at historic highs, despite a persistent focus on eating less and moving more, as guided by the energy balance model (EBM). This public health failure may arise from a fundamental limitation of the EBM itself. Conceptualizing obesity as a disorder of energy balance restates a principle of physics without considering the biological mechanisms that promote weight gain. An alternative paradigm, the carbohydrate-insulin model (CIM), proposes a reversal of causal direction. According to the CIM, increasing fat deposition in the body-resulting from the hormonal responses to a high-glycemic-load diet-drives positive energy balance. The CIM provides a conceptual framework with testable hypotheses for how various modifiable factors influence energy balance and fat storage. Rigorous research is needed to compare the validity of these 2 models, which have substantially different implications for obesity management, and to generate new models that best encompass the evidence.

AB - According to a commonly held view, the obesity pandemic is caused by overconsumption of modern, highly palatable, energy-dense processed foods, exacerbated by a sedentary lifestyle. However, obesity rates remain at historic highs, despite a persistent focus on eating less and moving more, as guided by the energy balance model (EBM). This public health failure may arise from a fundamental limitation of the EBM itself. Conceptualizing obesity as a disorder of energy balance restates a principle of physics without considering the biological mechanisms that promote weight gain. An alternative paradigm, the carbohydrate-insulin model (CIM), proposes a reversal of causal direction. According to the CIM, increasing fat deposition in the body-resulting from the hormonal responses to a high-glycemic-load diet-drives positive energy balance. The CIM provides a conceptual framework with testable hypotheses for how various modifiable factors influence energy balance and fat storage. Rigorous research is needed to compare the validity of these 2 models, which have substantially different implications for obesity management, and to generate new models that best encompass the evidence.

KW - Faculty of Science

KW - Obesity

KW - Weight loss

KW - Dietary carbohydrate

KW - Energy balance

KW - Macronutrients

KW - Endocrinology

KW - Insulin

KW - Glucagon

KW - Incretins

KW - Scholarly discourse

U2 - 10.1093/ajcn/nqab270

DO - 10.1093/ajcn/nqab270

M3 - Journal article

C2 - 34515299

JO - American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

JF - American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

SN - 0002-9165

ER -

ID: 279686631