Plasma alkylresorcinols reflect gluten intake and distinguish between gluten-rich and gluten-poor diets in a population at risk of metabolic syndrome
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BACKGROUND: Many patients with celiac disease experience difficulties in adherence to a gluten-free diet. Methods for testing compliance to a gluten-free diet are costly and cumbersome. Thus, a simple biomarker of gluten intake is needed in a clinical setting and will be useful for epidemiologic studies investigating wider effects of gluten intake.
OBJECTIVE: The aim was to evaluate plasma total alkylresorcinol concentrations as a measure of gluten intake.
METHODS: In this randomized, controlled, crossover intervention study in 52 Danish adults with features of the metabolic syndrome, we compared 8 wk of a gluten-rich and gluten-poor diet separated by a washout period of ≥6 wk. We measured fasting plasma concentrations of alkylresorcinols to determine if they reflected differences in gluten intake as a secondary outcome of the original study. In addition, we investigated in 118 Danish adults the cross-sectional association between self-reported gluten intake and plasma alkylresorcinols in the same and a similar study at baseline. We used mixed-model ANCOVA for examining treatment effects, a classification tree to determine compliance to the gluten-poor diet, and linear regression models for examining baseline correlation between plasma alkylresorcinol concentrations and gluten intake.
RESULTS: Plasma total alkylresorcinols decreased more during the gluten-poor period (geometric mean: -124.8 nmol/L; 95% CI: -156.5, -93.0 nmol/L) than in the gluten-rich period (geometric mean: -31.8 nmol/L; 95% CI: -63.1, -0.4 nmol/L) (P < 0.001). On the basis of the plasma alkylresorcinol profile, we built a classification tree to objectively determine compliance and found an overall participant misclassification error of 3.9%. In the cross-sectional study we found a 5.6% (95% CI: 2.4%, 8.9%) increase in plasma total alkylresorcinols per 1-g increase in reported gluten intake (P < 0.001).
CONCLUSION: We propose the use of plasma alkylresorcinols to monitor compliance to a gluten-free diet as well as to help investigations into the possible effects of gluten in the wider population. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT017119913 and NCT01731366.
|Journal||Journal of Nutrition|
|Number of pages||8|
|Publication status||Published - 2016|
- Faculty of Science - Celiac disease, Biomarkers, Gluten sensitivity, Gluten-related disorders, Coeliac disease, Gluten intolerance, Gluten-free diet