Iodine fortification may influence the age-related change in thyroid volume: a longitudinal population-based study (DanThyr)
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OBJECTIVE: To assess the individuals' thyroid volume changes after the mandatory nationwide iodine fortification (IF) program in two Danish areas with different iodine intake at baseline (Copenhagen, mild iodine deficiency (ID) and Aalborg, moderate ID).
DESIGN: A longitudinal population-based study (DanThyr).
METHODS: We examined 2465 adults before (1997) and after (2008) the Danish IF of salt (2000). Ultrasonography was carried out by the same sonographers using the same equipment, after controlling performances. Participants treated for thyroid disease were excluded from analyses.
RESULTS: Overall, median thyroid volume had increased in Copenhagen (11.8-12.2 ml, P=0.001) and decreased in Aalborg, although not significantly (13.3-13.1 ml, P=0.07) during the 11 years of follow-up. In both regions, there was an age-related trend in individual changes in thyroid volume from baseline to follow-up; thyroid volume increased in women <40 years of age and decreased in women >40 years of age. IN A MULTIVARIATE REGRESSION MODEL, HIGHER AGE AT ENTRY WAS A PREDICTOR (P0.05) FOR THYROID VOLUME DECREASE 20% DURING THE FOLLOW-UP PERIOD (WOMEN AGED 4045 YEARS: odds ratio (OR) 4.3 (95% CI, 2.2-8.2); women aged 60-65 years: 5.8 (2.9-11.6)) and individuals of higher age were also less likely to have an increase in thyroid volume (women aged 40-45 years: OR 0.2 (0.1-0.3); women aged 60-65: OR 0.3 (0.2-0.4)).
CONCLUSIONS: Age-dependent differences in thyroid volume and enlargement had leveled out after the Danish iodization program. Thus, the previously observed increase in thyroid volume with age may have been caused by ID.
|Journal||European Journal of Endocrinology|
|Number of pages||11|
|Publication status||Published - Apr 2014|
- Adolescent, Adult, Age Factors, Aged, Cross-Sectional Studies, Denmark, Female, Food, Fortified, Goiter, Humans, Iodine, Longitudinal Studies, Male, Middle Aged, Organ Size, Sodium Chloride, Dietary, Thyroid Gland, Young Adult