Effects of a highly controlled carbohydrate-reduced high-protein diet on markers of oxidatively generated nucleic acid modifications and inflammation in weight stable participants with type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial

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Carbohydrate-restricted diets are increasingly recognized as options for dietary management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We investigated the effects of a carbohydrate-reduced high-protein (CRHP) and a conventional diabetes (CD) diet on oxidative stress and inflammation in weight stable individuals with T2DM. We hypothesized that the CRHP diet would improve markers of oxidatively generated RNA and DNA modifications as well as inflammatory parameters. Thirty participants with T2DM were randomized to 6 weeks of CRHP or CD dietary treatment (30/50 energy percentage (E%) carbohydrate, 30/17E% protein, 40/33E% fat), followed by a cross-over to the opposite diet for a subsequent 6-week period. All meals were provided during the study and body weight was controlled. Diurnal urine samples were collected after 4 weeks on each diet and oxidatively generated RNA and DNA modifications were measured as 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine (8-oxoGuo) and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), respectively. Fasting concentrations of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-6 were measured before and after 6 weeks of interventions. Compared with the CD diet, the CRHP diet increased 24-hour urinary excretion of 8-oxoGuo by 9.3% (38.6 ± 12.6 vs. 35.3 ± 11.0 nmol/24 h, p = .03), whereas 8-oxodG did not differ between diets (24.0 ± 9.5 vs. 24.8 ± 11.1 nmol/24 h, p = .17). Changes in plasma inflammatory parameters did not differ between CRHP and CD diets, all p ≥ .2. The clinical implications of increased RNA oxidation following a CRHP diet as well as long-term effects of carbohydrate-restriction on markers of oxidatively generated nucleic acid modifications should be a field of future study.

Original languageEnglish
JournalScandinavian Journal of Clinical & Laboratory Investigation
Issue number5
Pages (from-to)401-407
Number of pages7
Publication statusPublished - 2020

ID: 240979807